peoples of South
Africa and neighbouring Botswana,
who live in the Kalahari,
are part of the Khoisan
group and are related to the Khoi.
However, they have no collective name for themselves in any of
their languages. They strongly object to being called San,
a term applied to them by their ethnic relatives and historic
rivals the Khoi; the term carries the same baggage in Southern
Africa that the word Nigger
carries in the United
States. They prefer to be called Bushmen,
despite the fact that the term is considered politically incorrect
by most Westerners.
San , people of southern Africa, consisting of several groups and
numbering over 85,000 in all. They are generally short in stature;
their skin is yellowish brown in color; and they feature prominent
cheekbones. The San have been called Bushmen by whites in South
Africa, but the term is now considered derogatory. Although many
now work for white settlers, about half are still nomadic hunters
and gatherers of wild food in desolate areas like the Kalahari
semi-desert, which streches between todays Nation States of
Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. ...more
In this context we use the word ABATHWA for the people of the /XAM Ka !Ke instead of the term ‘San’ and ‘Bushman’. Our ancestors used to call themselves ABATHWA. Both two terms ‘Bushman’ and ‘San’ were taken on and used by the Anthropologists in connotation, while the term Bushman was given to us by the European settlers and the term San was given to us by the
Jan Goliath (chairman of the /Xam
in SA), the /Xam defender, here with one of the last speakers of the /Xam
language: Ouma van Rooyen in Colesburg / South Africa.
on the situation of the Gana and Gwi 'Bushmen' and Bakgalagadi of
the Kalahari Game Reserve in Botswana International Alliance
of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests -
Nairobi, 2002 - The Fourth Conference of the International
Alliance of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of the Tropical
Forests in which participated representatives of the indigenous
organizations of Africa, Continental Asia, Maritime Asia and
Pacific, Bahasa Region, Central America, and South America,
gathered in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, in the face of the
terrible situation of the Gana and Gwi 'Bushmen' and Bakgalagadi
of the central Kalahari Game Resreve in Botswana.
GANA AND GWI
OF BOTSWANA’S Central Kalahari Game Reserve - In
2002 the Gana and Gwi San, or bushmen resident of Botswana Central Kalahari
Game reserve(CKGR) were forcibly evicted and moved to resettlement camps
outside the reserve, There are several documented cases of beating and torture
of the San inside the Central Kalahari Game Reserve prior to the eviction.
Survival of the !Kung San people in the Kalahari Desert
An analysis of the lifestyle of the Kung san people, including their social
organization, division of labor, available resources, status
differentiation, and material culture.
Khoikhoi / KhoeKhoe
Native peoples of South Africa, the Khoi Khoi are pastoralists and hunter
gatherers who were living near the Cape of Good Hope when the Dutch colonists
arrived in the 17th century. Related to, but not the same as, the San
peoples of southern Africa.
Also Known As:
Khoisan, Hottentots (no longer used)
The Khoikhoi ("people
people" or "real people") or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan
ethnic group of south-western Africa,
closely related to the Bushmen
(San). They have lived in this area for about 30,000 years. Khoikhoi is
sometimes spelt KhoeKhoe. In other words, the Khoikhoi who live in
Africa and in Namibia have not been there for long.
They were once known to Europeans
as the Hottentots, a name that is now considered derogatory (it
means "stutterer" in Dutch,
although the Dutch use the word "stotteraar" more to describe the
clicking sounds used in the Khoisan languages). The word lives on, however, in
the names of several African animal and plant species, such as the Hottentot
Fig or Carpobrotus Fig, Carpobrotus edulis.
mythology , Saartje
The name Khoikhoi means 'men of
men'. They spread out across Southern Africa, and migrating south 2,000 years
ago brought pastoralism (animal herding) to the Cape.
By the husbandry of sheep and
cattle they enjoyed a stable, balanced diet and could live in larger groups
than the San. They grazed their herds in the fertile valleys across the region
until the 3rd century AD when they encountered the advancing Bantu and
retreated into more arid areas.
The migratory bands living around
Cape Town came into contact with European explorers and merchants from 1500,
these encounters led to violent encounters, although the British made attempts
to develop closer relations, although this included two kidnaps!
The Khoikhoi at the Cape grazed
traditional migratory routes. When the Dutch East India Company enclosed their
grazing land for farms, war broke out.
Over the following century the
Khoi were steadily driven off their land and exposed to smallpox by trekboers.
Eventually their independence and culture were completely destroyed.
The Hadza or the Hadzabe are an indigenous group located in the central area
of Tanzania of East Africa. As of 2005 just less than 1000 definitive Hadza
remained in East Africa. Of that 1000 around half still function as
a Hunter-gatherer from the Hadzabe Peoples met Contempt and Prejudice in
September 1997 by Hartmut Heller († 2003)
Mahiya is the first spokesman for the Hadzabe (singular: Hadza) to
. The Hadzabe, one of the last few aboriginal peoples in
, want to continue to live as free hunter-gatherers, as they have done for a
hundred thousand years, without schools, churches, hospitals and government
Social & Language Grouping
Tribal, Social & Language Grouping
The primary Bushman linguistic divisions are referred to as the Northern,
Central & Southern Groups. It is a broad classification to identify the
three main & distinctive language forms. There are however other groups
that do not conveniently fall within these divisions but still apparently
belong within the overall Khoisan family. They include the Namib (now extinct
Khoi tongue), Khoi, Hadza & Sandawe.